Jepang Promosikan Olimpiade Tokyo 2020 yang Lebih “Hijau”

Ajang olahraga empat tahunan terbesar yang diselenggarakan di Tokyo menjadi pusat perhatian masyarakat dunia. Meski sempat ditunda akibat pandemi COVID-19 pada tahun lalu, olimpiade yang berlangsung 23 Juli hingga 8 Agustus 2021 ini akhirnya dilaksanakan. Tercatat 18.000 atlet yang berasal dari 200-an negara siap memberikan usaha terbaik mereka. Namun, pelaksanaan olimpiade di tengah kondisi Tokyo dan lima daerah lainnya yang berada dalam kondisi state emergency menyebabkan panitia pelaksana menerapkan aturan yang cukup ketat terhadap atlet dan tim pendamping. Setiap hari atlet diharuskan melakukan tes saliva untuk mencegah penyebaran masif yang tak terkendali di wisma atlet. Begitu juga dengan alat pelacak untuk memudahkan panitia pelaksana melakukan contact tracing apabila terdapat atlet atau tim pendamping yang positif COVID-19.

Dibalik semarak olimpiade di tengah pandemi, Komite Olimpiade Internasional (IOC) berusaha merealisasikan concern mereka terhadap pembangunan berkelanjutan. Jepang sebagai negara penyelengara olimpiade tahun ini setidaknya berhasil mempromosikan olimpiade ramah lingkungan dengan berbagai terobosan yang telah dipersiapkan bahkan pada tahun-tahun sebelumnya. Persiapan olimpiade dengan emisi karbon minimum ini bahkan melibatkan 90% masyarakat Jepang. Mereka mulai memisahkan limbah elektronik untuk dikumpulkan dan diolah sejak April 2017 hingga Maret 2019. Hasilnya, 78.985 ton limbah elektronik terkumpul. Keberhasilan pemerintah mensosialisasikan kebijakan ini yang dibuktikan dengan banyaknya jumlah limbah elektronik yang terkumpul tidak mengherankan. Seperti yang diketahui, Jepang merupakan negara di Asia yang memiliki rating tertinggi dalam hal daur ulang, berdasarkan data OECD.

Limbah elektronik yang dikumpulkan oleh masyarakat ternyata mengandung 32 kg emas, 3.500 kg perak, dan 2.200 kg perunggu. Bahan-bahan tersebutlah yang kemudian diolah menjadi medali yang kini juga dibawa pulang oleh atlet Indonesia, seperti Greysia Polii, Apriyani Rahayu, Anthony Ginting, Eko Yuli Irawan, Rahmat Erwin Abdullah, dan Windy Cantika Aisah. Upaya Jepang mengolah kembali limbah elektronik yang dihasilkan oleh negaranya patut diapresiasi, pasalnya setiap tahun sekitar 650.000 ton barang elektronik dan perabotan rumah tangga dibuang di Jepang. Hanya 100.000 ton yang diolah kembali. Terlebih, data dari Statista menyatakan bahwa Asia menyumbang hampir setengah dari limbah elektronik global pada 2019.

olympics.com

Selain medali daur ulang, Jepang juga menekan biaya pembangunan gedung sekaligus mengurangi potensi produksi limbah dengan menggunakan 25 bangunan yang telah ada sebagai venue olimpiade dan paralimpiade. Sementara itu, hanya delapan bangunan baru yang benar-benar dirancang dari awal. Sepuluh bangunan sisanya adalah bangunan sementara, sehingga kurang dari 20% bangunan baru dari total 43 venue disiapkan oleh Jepang. Tak berhenti disana, Jepang juga menggunakan limbah daur ulang plastik untuk podium olimpiade dan karton daur ulang untuk tempat tidur atlet yang mampu menopang beban 200 kg. Penggunakan energi terbarukan juga menjadi perhatian penyelenggara. Bekerja sama dengan Toyota, 500 mobil dan 100 bus listrik berbahan bakar sel hidrogen siap membawa para atlet dan tim pendamping untuk bepergian dari wisma ke venue perlombaan atau sekadar berjalan di sekitar wisma atlet.

Berbagai terobosan yang telah dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Jepang dalam penyelenggaran olimpiade di tengah pandemi menggambarkan betapa seriusnya mereka menjawab tantangan menekan jumlah emisi karbon dalam ajang olahraga besar empat tahunan ini. Melalui Olimpiade Tokyo 2020 ini juga dunia dapat belajar bahwa kontribusi masyarakat cukup penting dalam mewujudkan pelaksanaan kegiatan yang ramah lingkungan. Kemudahan Pemerintah Jepang menggerakan masyarakat dalam pengumpulan limbah elektronik juga didalangi dengan tingginya kesadaran masyarakat dalam pengelolaan limbah yang tepat. Meski sistem juga memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan, edukasi menjadi bagian penting untuk mewujudkan hal yang sama di Indonesia.

Referensi

Jo, B. (2021, August 3). Daftar Lengkap Atlet Indonesia Peraih Medali Olimpiade Tokyo 2020. Diambil kembali dari Tirto: https://tirto.id/daftar-lengkap-atlet-indonesia-peraih-medali-olimpiade-tokyo-2020-giie

Ng, K. (2021, July 23). Tokyo 2020 : Everything You Need to Know About Sustainability at ‘First-Ever Carbon Negative Olympics’. Diambil kembali dari Independent: https://www.independent.co.uk/climate-change/sustainable-living/tokyo-olympics-2020-sustainability-b1889267.html

Reardon, L. (2021, July 23). Tokyo Olympics By Numbers: Participating Country Stats and Facts. Diambil kembali dari Sports Northwest: https://www.nbcsports.com/northwest/tokyo-olympics/tokyo-olympics-numbers-participating-country-stats-and-facts

Tiseo, I. (2021, July 27). Global E-Waste – Statistics & Facts. Diambil kembali dari Statista: https://www.statista.com/topics/3409/electronic-waste-worldwide/#topicHeader__wrapper

Tokyo 2020 Medal Project: Towards an Innovative Future for All. (2021). Diambil kembali dari Olympic.com: https://olympics.com/tokyo-2020/en/games/medals-project/

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